Bamboo is one of the fastest-growing
woody grasses with zero net greenhouse gas emissions. It is an alternative source
for sustainable biomass production and uses due to its high biomass yields and short
rotation period. Bamboo biomass is a sustainable development chain resource and
therefore, contributes to fulfilling many of the United Nations sustainable
development goals (UN SDGs), such as poverty reduction, sustainable energy
supply, land and water life protection, rural and urban infrastructure
development, circular (bio) economic growth, and climate change mitigation.
Globally, the plantation of bamboo is
done in approximately 220,000 km2 areas, with the estimated
production of 15–20 million tons annually (Liu et al., 2012). Bamboo biomass is
the largest natural source of fibre and cellulose (Suhaily et al., 2013). It is
available at minimal cost, and it brings progression into the manufacturing
industry and production chain. Bamboo uses for various commercial applications,
including mat, chopsticks, panels or composites, charcoal or active carbon,
paper, and pulp (Scurlock
et al., 2000), food
additives, textiles, biochemicals, bioenergy, and dietary fibres.
A biological attack is arguably a critical
concern to use bamboo biomass bio-products. Bamboo has a thin-walled geometry,
high starch content, and lacks any decay-resistant compounds. Therefore,
biological decay in bamboo can be due to insects like beetles and termites; and
rotting due to fungal attack. To
prevent such effects, treat bamboo through-thickness with chemicals, keep it in
the dry, airy place, and away from termites (Archila
et al., 2018).
The property of bamboo is greatly
affected by the mechanical characteristics, nodes, clums location, and
orientation of the outer bark (Ahmad and Kamke, 2005). Nevertheless, with
proper improvements in the treatment and conversion process using advanced
engineering technology and modern science, bamboo can replace wood, plastics,
and related products significantly. Consequently, bamboo biomass has great
potential as a future bioresource for biorefining.
The commercial manufacturing products of
bamboo reflect the green recovery for the sustainable future. Few commercial
applications of bamboo biomass that contribute to sustainable development are
Bamboo, a biocomposite material is
composed of cellulose fibres embedded in a lignin matrix. The reinforced bamboo
fibre increases flexural ductility, tensile strength, and cracking resistance
(Suhaily et al., 2013). The quality improves further by applying various
treatment techniques. Maleic anhydride treatment improves the mechanical
(flexural modulus and modulus of elasticity)
and water-resistant properties of bamboo–epoxy composites (Abdul Khalil et al.,
2012). Bamboo strips can be reinforced with non-woven polypropylene to produce
ultra-light unconsolidated composites (Suhaily et al., 2013). Similarly, bamboo
joinery can be straightened or bend by heating and clamping and create special
effects that are useful for industries (Xian et al., 2018).
Nowadays, various companies manufacture
hybrid bamboo-based products commercially. Conventional biocomposites such as
chipboard, flakeboard, plywood, and medium-density fibreboard are made from bamboo.
In the international market, bamboo veneer, plywood, and density fiberboard
have proven their quality.
The character of bamboo as mechanical
properties, durability, and excellent heat absorber makes it a suitable
material for building construction. Therefore, bamboo can replace reinforced
concrete and other timber by combining it with mineral binders. Nowadays, the
city buildings and homes worldwide use the long-range cross-laminated bamboo
beams as building materials (Suhaily et al., 2013).
Similarly, the other uses of bamboo in
construction are boards, ceilings design, walls, floors, doors, stairs, roof, and
window frames are made from bamboo.
Plastic Composite (BPC)
BPC is an environmentally friendly
mixture of plastic and bamboo that contains premium wood flour and recycled
plastic. It has better mechanical properties and has the potential to reduce
the dependence of plastic (Xian et al., 2018). The improvement of the polyvinylchloride
(PVC) content upgrades BPC mechanical properties. Higher PVC content in Bamboo–PVC
composite enhances dimensional stability and durability, which is due to the lower
density and higher porosity of bamboo as compared to PVC (Wang et al., 2008).
The few applications of BPC are indoor
flooring, outdoor decking, fence, car interior, garden railing, outdoor flower
pot, and outdoor living space. Besides, BPC has the significant potential to
replace plastic plates, spoons, and cups.
Short bamboo fibres added into elastomer
polymer matrix like natural rubber provides great mechanical performances. Similarly,
the bonding agents like silane, hexamethylenetetramine, and phenol-formaldehyde
play a vital role in acquiring adhesion between rubber and fibres (Ismail et
al., 2002). Elastomer composites use to make tires, gloves, and other
complex-shaped mechanical goods.
The carbon black-conventional
reinforcing filler improves elastomer properties. It is used by tires
manufacturer for obtaining improved modulus, durability, and increasing tire's
service life (Abdul Khalil et al., 2012). The utilization of different natural
fibres as filler to replace burned fossil fuels in the rubber polymer matrix
produces high-quality tires.
In the US alone, 200 million tons of
wood are required annually in producing paper and related products. Only
one-third of the total volume of paper in the US is produced from a recovered
fibre while the other two-thirds come from pulpwood, wood chips, and different
residues obtained from harvested trees (Bowyer et al., 2014). This data
indicates the potential of bamboo shoot in the paper and pulp industry and
shifting away from reliance on the timber industry.
Further, bamboo sheets are known to degrade
rapidly compared to hardwood sheets and thus decompose quickly (Win and
Okayama, 2011). Bamboo's primary wood density is very high, i.e. 0.85g/cc.
So, it can be mixed with fast-growing Trema orientalis with low
density to produce a quality paper (Jahan et al., 2015). Similarly, fibre
fractionation with an appropriate mixture of hardwood and bamboo (approx. 3:1)
enhances the strength and printing properties of the paper (Sood et al., 2005).
Food and Medicinal values
Most of the Asian countries, such as Nepal,
India, Bhutan, China, Thailand, and Vietnam use young and soft bamboo shoots as
food products and medicinal values.
Bamboo shoots are rich in proteins, carbohydrates,
minerals, vitamins, and dietary fibers. Besides, the extracts of bamboo shoots
have medicinal values including anti-oxidant, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory.
It is available commercially as food products, such as food additives, canned shoots,
juice, fermented shoots, pickle, and powder (Singhal et al., 2013). Bamboo
shoots can play a vital role in poverty reduction especially in rural
communities of developing countries.
Bioenergy and Biofuel
Bamboo biomass is a potential bioenergy
source as it is composed of lignocellulosic material and is non-food biomass.
It is used as a source of energy in the form of solid, liquid, and gas which
depends upon the treatment process. Solid biofuel is the most predominant form
of bioenergy which is utilized as an alternative to firewood and charcoal. Principally,
the bioenergy and biofuel generation process involves thermochemical and
biochemical processes. All parts of the bamboo biomass utilize as an energy
Bamboo is lignocellulosic biomass that has
excellent potential as a future bioresource for various commercial usages, such
as bioenergy, biochemicals, and biomaterials through the biorefinery approach. However,
the biorefinery applications of bamboo as the sustainable carbon dioxide
neutral biomass requires more research and development in terms of environmentally
friendly and cost-effective bioprocessing method, cultivation, and harvesting.
Therefore, collaboration among
manufacturers, designers, and scientists are essential to achieve the quality
materials that have implications for the companies, consumers, and society.
Great design and balanced approach of material, environment, technology,
commercial design, and idealism concerns will make a benefit without ecological
effect. Low cost, accessible, and environmentally friendly bamboo biomass have
attractive benefits for both environmental and socio-economic development. The
highlight and implementation of the new progress in innovative bamboo-based
products can contribute significantly to achieving many of the UN SDGs.
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