Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) have been employed for various applications in recent years including energy production, wastewater treatment, electrosynthesis and desalination.
The present chapter emphasizes the advantages and potential applications of BES for the remediation of recalcitrant pollutants present in various types of wastewaters. Bioelectricity generated from the treatment of these wastewaters is an additional energy output from the process along with the possible environmental solution. Since, the treatment mechanism of BES is combination of both microbial and electrochemical reactions, the process can be termed as microbial electroremediation.
The current chapter depicts the principles of bioelectrochemical remediation, possible mechanisms at anode and cathode. Further, a comprehensive overview on different types of wastewater as well as nutrients, pollutants and toxic substances, utilized as electron donors or acceptors for their treatment, is discussed in detail under different categories.
Microbial electroremediation is still an emerging field of science aimed at harnessing energy from wastewater treatment and it has a potential to boon the waste remediation with net positive energy gain.