Microbial metabolism of pollutants is the key process involved in energy generation along with remediation. This process led by the different electron acceptors operates under diverse operations. Engineering these for renewable energy products is of prime importance for sustainable development.
This chapter describes the bioremediation process in generating the various types of bioenergies that help sustainable development. Anaerobic process of organic matter degradation is the major process that contributes to energy generation. The operating conditions and process control help in the generation of different energy vectors like methane, hydrogen, and electricity.
Another approach gaining prominence in wastewater treatment is phytoremediation, led by microalgae. The heterotrophic growth of microalgae aids in the organic contaminants’ removal from wastewater as well as carbon dioxide sequestration from the atmosphere to generate lipids for biodieseland carbohydrates.