Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have gained much attention in the field of energy sources due to their unique potential to recover different nutrients, inorganic and organic materials (Colombo et al. 2017; Modi et al. 2016; Singh et al. 2018; Sun et al. 2018). BESs are a unique, sustainable, eco-friendly microbial system for converting electrical energy into chemical energy and vice versa.
From the past few decades, BESs are well-known for contribution in the field of developing sustainable technology for wastewater treatment, producing electricity and useful chemicals. Wastewater containing biodegradable organic compounds and other contaminants are being used as fuels in BESs that could otherwise move to water streams and become responsible for water pollution (ElMekawy et al. 2015; Venkata Mohan et al. 2010).
In BESs, electrochemically active microorganisms act as biocatalysts deposited on solid electrodes and forming bioanodes/or biocathodes. These electroactive bacteria (EABs) known as electrogens, grown on electrodes, derive their food from organic waste and act as bioelectrocatalyst releasing electrons and protons during their metabolism. Predictably, they were being used for the treatment of wastewater and bioenergy production through bioelectrochemical reactions (Modi et al. 2017; Singh and Verma 2015a, b).